The Water Quality Planning Branch has seven biologists/ecologists and two geologists
on staff. This branch deals with a variety of issues related to water quality
monitoring and standards development, groundwater and wasteload allocations.
It has produced a number of reports on a variety of topics related to its work,
see the List of Publications available online in
PDF File format, also available in hard copy on request.
Water Quality Monitoring
Water Quality Monitoring includes the monitoring of the chemical constituents
in the water and sediment of rivers, streams and lakes within the State and monitoring
the biological communities and physical habitat within selected waters.
The chemical monitoring network on rivers and streams includes over 130 stations
which are sampled monthly for more than 30 parameters, over 100 stations that
are sampled on a bi-monthly or quarterly schedule and an additional 30-50 stations
that are intensively sampled over a short period of time for special purposes.
Some of these stations have been regularly sampled since the 1970s. Collection
of the routine, monthly water samples is performed by the Water Divisionsí field
inspectors and laboratory analyses are conducted by the Departmentís Technical Services Division. The quarterly or bi-monthly sampling
of unassisted or reassessed waters is conducted by Planning Branch personnel
with laboratory analyses by Tech Services. Synoptic, watershed-intensive surveys
of the physical, chemical and biological conditions of a watershed are conducted
by the Planning Section personnel.
Biological/Habitat Monitoring is currently restricted to special project
needs associated with synoptic watershed surveys or for the development of additional
data to support the establishment of biological criteria used to evaluate the
biological integrity of a water body. Biological data collections consists primarily
of the fish and macroinvertebrate communities of a stream, including species
identification, enumeration and grouping by guilds such as families, tropic
feeding levels, sensitivity to disturbances, etc. In addition, measurement of
existing aquatic life habitat is necessary to identify habitat stressors that
may be affecting the communities in addition to water quality contaminants.
The Lake and Reservoir Monitoring Program was not formalized until 1989 when
the first statewide intensive monitoring of Arkansasí Significant Publicly-owned
Lakes was conducted. This included measurement of approximately 30 chemical
parameters plus bacteria and chlorophyll a. At least 80 lakes were included.
They range in size from 60 to over 45,000 acres and total 356,254 acres. A second
lakes survey was completed in 1994 and included a very similar plan, except
sediment quality was added to the project.
Reports on monitoring projects are compiled regularly. On-Line Searchable
database of monitoring station lab results is now available online
Water Quality Monitoring
Stations On-Line Searchable Database
Development and Update of Water Quality Standards
Arkansasí Surface Water Quality Standards, Arkansas Pollution Control and
Regulation 2, include:
- designation of uses for all waters of the State
- narrative or numeric criteria designed to prevent impairment of the designated uses
- a policy to prohibit degradation of waters of the State (anti-degradation policy).
The water quality standards are ecoregion based. Waters within each of the
six ecoregions of the State have standards which were developed from data from
least-disturbed streams within each ecoregion. These data were developed during
an intensive, statewide study of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics
of least-disturbed streams during 1983-1986.
At least every three years the water quality standards must be reviewed and
updated where appropriate. Additionally, the Arkansas Pollution Control and
Ecology Commission may be petitioned to amend the water quality standards at
any time. The process for any amendment to the water quality standards includes
- a 30 to 45 day public review period
- consideration of and response to public comments
- review of proposed amendments by the appropriate Committee of the Arkansas General Assembly
- approval by the Arkansas Pollution Control and Ecology Commission
- approval by the Governor of Arkansas
- approval by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Link to current Water Quality Standards Review
Biennial Assessment of the Condition of Waters of the State
Every two years all water quality data from the Departmentís monitoring networks
and any other readily available data is compiled into a report which describes
the current condition of the Stateís waters. Waters which are not meeting the
Water Quality Standards or are not supporting their designated uses are noted
and scheduled for corrective action. This report, which is required by Section
305(b) of the Clean Water Act, is also used to prepare the statewide nonpoint
source assessment report, the list of impaired waters (Section 303(d) of the
Clean Water Act), the Index of Watershed Indicators and numerous other water
quality management needs.
Link to the most recent Section 305(b) Report
Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL)
For waters that are not meeting water quality standards or have a significant
potential not to meet standards as a result of point source discharges or nonpoint
source activities, TMDLís are developed which establish the maximum amount of
a pollutant that can enter a specific water body without violating the water
quality standards. The values are normally calculated amounts based on dilution
and the assimilative capacity of the water body. Calculations are performed
by various models which predict safe levels of contaminants based on worst-case
conditions and providing a margin of safety. The calculated safe amounts then
may be allocated to point source discharges as a wasteload allocation (WLA)
and to nonpoint sources as a local allocation (LA). This constitutes a TMDL.
Ground Water Protection Program
The basic responsibilities of the ground water program include budgeting
and grant administration, ground-water quality planning and water-quality monitoring,
and addressing gaps in ground-water protection through the development of guidelines
One of the more important functions of the Program is the water-quality monitoring
including ambient monitoring and research-oriented monitoring, such as investigation
of pesticides in ground water in eastern Arkansas, nutrient and bacteria transport
in shallow aquifer systems in northwest Arkansas, and salt-water intrusion into
shallow aquifers in south-eastern Arkansas. The ambient ground-water monitoring
program was developed in order to document existing ground-water quality in
various aquifers throughout the State. Because each area of the State is sampled
every three years, the data can be used to document trends and changes in water
quality over time. The monitoring program currently consists of 195 well and
spring sites in 9 different monitoring areas within the State. A full suite
of inorganic parameters is analyzed for the samples, including all major cations
and anions and trace metals. In addition, in areas where industry, landfills,
and other facilities which store, manufacture or dispose organic chemicals,
semi-volatile and volatile organic analyses are performed on the samples. Areas
with row-crop agriculture commonly include pesticide analyses. Published reports
for each area of the State are produced following each sampling event. A map
of the established ground-water monitoring areas is available.
Link to Water-Quality
Monitoring Searchable Database
In general, ground-water quality is very good to exceptional throughout the
State. Exceptions to this situation are high iron concentrations and areas of
high chloride content in localized areas of the Gulf Coastal Plain in eastern
Arkansas. Impacts from non-point sources, although regional in scope, dominantly
result in low level contamination below established health standards. Point-source
or site-specific sources result in higher levels of contamination but are restricted
to smaller areas (commonly on site boundaries). Program personnel work together
with other divisions of the Department and other agencies in crafting guidelines
and regulations to address both point-source and non-point sources of pollution.
Although the state does not have a formal set of ground-water standards, the
Water Division uses federal standards and health advisory limits to establish
cleanup levels at contaminated sites.
Technical Review and Administration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) Permits Biomonitoring Program
The biomonitoring program of the NPDES permits system requires most major
dischargers to perform toxicity tests of their effluent to determine if it is
toxic to aquatic organisms at various concentrations which might occur in the
receiving stream. The test procedure has a very rigorous protocol that must
be followed, along with detailed statistical interpretations and several potential
follow-up steps depending on the test results. The Planning Section assists
the Permits Branch by preparing and reviewing biomonitoring language in the
permits, reviewing toxicity test results for correct procedures, tracking the
results of all testing done by permittees and contacting permittees to initiate
required actions if toxicity is verified.
Short Term Authority
Pursuant to ß401(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act, the ADEQ hereby issues
water quality certification for the certain project with certain conditions.
following applicants are requesting water quality certification from the
Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) in accordance with Section
401(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act.
Link to Short Term Activity Authorization files